Review Articles

COVID-19 Neurological Manifestations

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Cátia Carmona
Sandra Sousa
Miguel Miranda
COVID-19, Neurologic Manifestations, SARS-CoV-2


COVID-19 is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which until now has been responsible for more than one hundred million people infected worldwide, with a considerable mortality reported.
Clinically characterized as a flu-like syndrome, severe cases of the disease can progress to an acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Since early reports of SARS-CoV-2 infections in December 2019, several neurological manifestations of the disease have been described. Until today, the pathophysiology behind these neurological presentations of COVID-19 remains unclear, however case reports suggest both muscle, peripheral and central nervous systems involvement.
So far, published data is methodologically limited by small-sampled observational and retrospective studies. Several prospective reports are underway, aiming to estimate the real prevalence of neurological COVID-19 manifestations, to describe the mechanisms behind the virus neurotropism and to elucidate about possible therapeutic options.
To date, long-term neurological sequalae of this viral infection are still unknown.
This article aims to provide a descriptive review of the various COVID-19 neurological manifestations so far described.

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Cátia Carmona, Unidade Funcional de Neurologia, Hospital de Cascais, Cascais, Portugal.

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